Mutualism on Native Hops

Ants and the rare hops azure butterfly larvae (sometimes) form a mutualism. Ants dutifully watch over the caterpillars, which secrete a special nectar. Our research investigates why this relationship is on again, off again.

Global Change in Aphids

Counting bugs over a decade show that year-to-year variation in the timing of snow cover loss has direct and indirect effects on herbivore abundance.

Moths at High Elevation

Miller moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) fatten up on floral nectar at high elevation. Resampling moths after 40 years shows how this pattern has changed.